Wing Chun

From Academic Kids

Wing Chun (Template:Zh-cp; Jyutping: wing4 ceon1), also spelled Ving Tsun, is a Chinese martial arts system with an emphasis on unarmed close-range fighting, although it includes weapon techniques and techniques suitable for various ranges.

Contents

History

As with many martial arts, Wing Chun has several stories about how it came to be created. Such stories are normally passed from teacher to student in a sort of oral tradition. Since students are usually more focused on learning the art itself than its history, such legends can easily become romanticised and it is difficult to pin down historical fact. Such legends nevertheless shape every practitioner's idea of what the art is and are therefore worth studying in their own right.

Origin Story

Wing Chun, according to legend, was a style of Chinese martial arts technique designed by the Shaolin monks for the smaller stature of women fighters. Although there are many legends about the origins of what have become traditional Cantonese martial arts, one legend avers that, after escaping the destruction of the Fujian Shaolin monastery, a nun named Abbess Ng Mui (五枚大師 wǔ mi d shī; ng5 mui4 daai6 si1) taught her own style of Kung Fu to a young woman whom she adopted named Yim Wing-chun (嚴詠春 yn yǒng chūn; jim4 wing4-ceon1), whose name means "Sing Praise Spring," from whom the style gets its name. Wing-chun was being bullied into marriage by a local warlord but, by learning from Ng Mui, was able to defeat the warlord in hand to hand combat and marry her own chosen fiancé. The style was then passed down their family line.

Unfortunately, this legendary history cannot be confirmed and has been the subject of debate for decades. Other alternative histories for Wing Chun typically involve connections to the Triads, revolutionary groups, or the Hakka people of southern China.

One alternative explanation for the distant origins of Wing Chun is not so exotic. This explanation asserts that Wing Chun was practiced by the members of the Red Boat Opera Society, a revolutionary group under cover as travelling entertainers on a riverboat. The explanation is that while they were highly trained martial artists (in the Chinese opera tradition) their tasks as spies and assassins required specialized skills. While actual assassinations would be carried out using poison or knives, the targets would typically be protected by bodyguards. If these guards noticed an unauthorized person at night, they would seize the person, call for help, and disable the person to be held for interrogation. Thus, according to this explanation, Wing Chun was developed. It was designed to deal with an opponent who seized (rather than struck) and it was designed to silence that opponent immediately. This would explain certain technical aspects of Wing Chun (such as the emphasis on close-range combat and the many strikes to the throat or diaphragm).


The only historical figure generally agreed upon in Wing Chun history is Leung Jan (梁贊 Ling Zn; loeng4 zaan3), an herbal doctor who lived in the Chinese city of Foshan in the 19th century. Among his students were Chan Wah-shun (陳華順 Chn Hushn; can4 waa4 seon6 aka "Money-changer Wa" 找錢華), Woodman Wah (木人華) and his sons Leung Chun (梁春 liang2 ?; loeng4 ?) and Leung Bik (梁壁 Ling B; loeng4 bik1). Of these, Leung Bik and Chan Wa-shun were the primary teachers of Yip Man.

Leung Jan is said to have learned from two people, Wong Wah-bo (黃華寶) and Leung Yee-tai (梁二娣 Ling rt; loeng4 ji6 tai5), both of whom are said to have been experts at different aspects of Wing Chun, and at least one of whom (Leung Yee-tai) was a traveling performer with a Chinese opera troupe which moved from place to place by boat.It should be noted here that in his younger years Wong wah-bo was a practitioner of the Sil-Lum Hung Gar style having learned the Long pole tecniques from no other than the legendary Shaolin master Jee Shim himself. (紅船戲班).

However, though generally agreed upon, Leung Jan is not the only ancestral grandmaster of the art. The peers of his teachers (Wong Wah Bo and Leung Yee Tai) includes many others amounting to at least 11 others in some traditions. Yik Kam (??, yi4 jin1 in pinyin, whose name means literally mean "changing gold") is one such peers of his masters. Better known as Cheng-Tan Kam ( ???, zheng4 dan4 jin1) due to his sublimal portrayal of female lead characters in the opera, Yik Kam retired and settled in Panyu province where he was challenged by a young Cho Dak Shing who was beaten soundly. Eventaully learning at Yik Kam's feet, Cho Dak Shing went on to establish the legacy of Cho Ga Wing Chun (????, Cho's Family Wing Chun).

Also of note: The existence of a town in the Fujian province of China that bears the name Yong Chun (永春 pinyin yǒng chūn jyutping wing6 ceon1) meaning 'forever spring' is of significant coincidence. The Yong (Wing) 永 of the town Yong Chun (Wing Chun) means 'forever', while the Yong (Wing) 詠 in Yong Chun (Wing Chun) actually means 'sing'. Both however have the same radical 水. There are several other styles of kung fu that stem from this region, most notably White Crane that many of the legends ascribing to Wing Chun cite Ng Mui as the creator of. It is noted that there are simillarities between White Crane and Wing Chun kung fu, as well as White Crane's apparent influence in Japanese styles of martial arts.

Recent History

More recent history can be pinned down with a little more certainty, as the events occurred in living memory. There are still conflicting accounts, though.

Yip Man was the first Wing Chun master to teach the art openly in Hong Kong on a school fee basis. His students and their students therefore make up the majority of the practitioners of Wing Chun today (see his article for the outline of a family tree). Yip Man died in 1972.

One of the last students of Yip Man, Leung Ting, formed a branch called Wing Tsun (rather than his master's Ving Tsun) as an international franchise. This organization has spread to Europe and spawned several offshoots.

More recently, beginning in 1970, Bruce Lee was trained in Wing Chun (among other arts), and he incorporated some of its techniques and ideas into his own Jeet Kune Do. His international fame led to a certain amount of international interest in Wing Chun.

Yuan Kay-shan is another Wing Chun teacher, not from Yip Man's branch, who has passed on his tradition. He did not found a school, but his student, Shum Lung passed on his tradition to many.

Cho On is another not from Yip Man's branch. He was a native of Panyu province of China who learnt his Wing Chun from his uncle Cho Dak Shing. Cho On met Yip Man in Hong Kong and it was said that Cho introduced Yip to teach at the Restaurant Association. When the finger of opportunity beckons once more, Cho moved to Pulau Pinang, a northern island of Peninsular Malaysia where he began teaching. Among those who inherited his art is Lau Soon Yin and Ku Choi Wah, both residing in Singapore presently. Ku has taught many students including Randy Tay, who founded Kuen-Do [1] (http://www.kuen-do.com) based on Cho's lineage of Wing Chun.

Forms

The central training technique is a drill called "Chi Sao" (sticking arms) which can be compared to a kind of close-range sparring in which the two participants keep their forearms in contact while searching out gaps in each others defence. Years of experience in Chi Sao give the practitioner the arm sensitivity to be successful in combat as well as getting them used to being in close with an attacker. There are also pre-arranged chi sao drills to practise very basic techniques and also some for the legs ("chi gerk" (sticking legs).

Although initially developed as an unarmed form of combat, the Wing Chun system also incorporated the use of the pole and butterfly swords during its evolution.

As the style is taught conceptually, rather than with emphasis on techniques, there have been several interpretations of the art over time. This is reflected in the separate schools established by in later years, as listed below.

There are 3 main empty hand forms typically found within the system, each of which imparts and builds on foundational concepts:

  • Siu Nim Tao (Sil Lum Tao) ("the little idea")
  • Chum Kiu (Chum Kil) ("seeking the bridge")
  • Biu Tze (Bill Jee) ("thrusting fingers")

A fourth empty hand form uses a training aid:

Commonly, the wooden dummy form is said to encompass the three sets, while the three sets are said to encompass the wooden dummy form.

The "six and a half point" pole form and the "eight chopping" knives forms are primarily used to develop and condition the empty hand movements.

In the Cho Ga lineage, the primary form is the Siu Nim Tao which is divided into 4 sections and includes the Chum Kiu and Bil Jee form of the more popular Yip Man's lineage. The other 2 major forms are Sui Da ("Random Hitting") and Jui Da ("Chase Hitting") which contains unique movements not found in other lineages (e.g. capturing and joint manipulation techniques). They are also relatively more aggressive in nature compared to its more popular cousins.

Characteristics and Principles

Wing Chun has managed to retain its focus as a practical fighting art. It has avoided being modified into a competitive (rule based) point-scored sport or demonstration art. Wing Chun tournaments are rare or unknown.

The more effective Wing Chun strikes (eyes, throat, knee) are too dangerous even for freestyle competitions. Wing Chun is therefore rarely seen in competition.

Wing Chun is not just a collection of unrelated techniques. It has a core set of guiding principles which allows practitioners to decide what is correct or incorrect Wing Chun. This keeps the art a pure and integrated fighting system, while allowing direction for refinement that is consistent with its principles.

These guiding principles are strictly practical and is part of the reason for Wing Chun's uniquely scientific and logical approach to fighting. It is likely that Bruce Lee managed to develop Jeet Kune Do from Wing Chun because Wing Chun trained him to think about fighting in a scientific way.

All Wing Chun techniques have a practical purpose. There are no flowery moves or graceful techniques that mimic animal movements. To the uninitiated, Wing Chun can appear less effective when compared with more dramatic styles. Like Hsing Yi, another linear style, Wing Chun practitioners pride themselves on plain-looking but effective techniques. The crowd-pleasing elaborate moves used by Bruce Lee in his movies are not real Wing Chun or Jeet Kune Do. Bruce Lee consciously choreographed more flamboyant moves to entertain his fans. His actual fighting style was simple, direct and effective.

Following this utilitarian approach, the names of Wing Chun techniques are purely descriptive. For example - bounce hand (tan sau), wing arm (bong sau), slapping hand (pak sau). Wing Chun terminology is traditionally rendered in the Cantonese dialect of Chinese.

External versus Internal Style

Whether Wing Chun is an external style (relies on body mechanics), or an internal style (nei chia) that makes use of Qi (internal energy) is disputed. This is possibly due to different interpretations of the meaning of the terms internal (also known as soft) and external (also known as hard).

However, Wing Chun is not as well known for its use internal energy as are T'ai Chi Ch'uan, Baguazhang or Hsing Yi.

In practice, the concepts of Wing Chun may be explained and understood in either in terms of body mechanics or in terms of Qi. Wing Chun does differ from most internal styles in that Wing Chun training is generally vigorous, fast and forceful and often works with partners.

This is not to say that Wing Chun relies on brute strength. On the contrary, softness (via relaxation) is fundamental to the style, and essential to deflect, negate, and use an opponent's power against him.

While some say that, even tense, it is possible to use Wing Chun, such an unsophisticated approach is easily defeated by a skilled Wing Chun practitioner.

Even Chi Sao training can be misused if too much force is used. Yip Man did not lose to his young students in Chi Sao even during his later years, when he was weaker. He used his superior sensitivity and body structure to control their power.

Such skill does not come automatically. The difference in the application of techniques can be subtle. Proper instruction is crucial.

Close Range

Wing Chun is one of the few styles that emphasizes non-grappling close range fighting. Ideal Wing Chun fighting distance is fist range. "Emergency" techniques also permit Wing Chun practitioners to fight at closer ranges using elbows. While the Wing Chun forward kick can be considered a long range technique, Wing Chun practitioners concentrate on "entry techniques" - getting past an opponent's kicks and punches to bring him within range of Wing Chun's rich close range repertoire.

Other styles reason that you should aim to strike at maximum range - which means kicking. This is because if you do not, your opponent will be able to hit you before you can hit him.

Wing Chun teaches that it is always possible to get past an opponent's long range technique and close in to fight on Wing Chun's terms. A kick can be jammed before full extension, before it develops full power. A kick can also be jammed when it is being withdrawn, as all kicks inevitably have to be. A Wing Chun practitioner will rush in during these times, using quick footwork to close the distance.

A favorite Wing Chun saying is "He comes I remain, he leaves I pursue, he disengages I attack" to emphasize its close range and stick-to-your-opponent approach to fighting.

Wing Chun's reputation as a style suitable for smaller sized people arises partly from the advantages close range fighting gives to the smaller person. At close range, a smaller person will still be able to develop full power in punches and kicks, as long as there is sufficient space to fully extend his limbs. A longer-limbed opponent at the same distance will be crowded, unable to extend fully and develop full power.

Speed

Wing Chun values speed over power. A weak fast punch that is too fast to be avoided is better than a powerful slow punch that can be dodged or deflected.

Striking inevitably opens up part of your own body to attack. A fast strike reduces the exposure time.

A punch is faster than a kick, so punches are emphasized over kicks. Punches are also safer as they do not disrupt the body's centre of gravity as much as kicks do. Kicks are kept low, below or slightly above the waist, so as to not to be grabbed by your opponent's faster hands.

Wing Chun's emphasis on speed arises naturally from its close range fighting focus. At close range, a punch has less distance to travel and so will arrive more quickly. At close range, hand positions can be difficult to see because of this heightened speed. This is why Chi Sao is used to train a Wing Chun practitioner to sense his opponent's hand position and probe for holes in his defense, from touch alone.

The Wing Chun stance is also designed for speed. The feet are kept about a shoulder's width apart, forming a good balance between speed and stability. A wider stance would be more stable but would slow down kicks and footwork.

A highly trained Wing Chun practitioner achieves maximum speed by acting reflexively and instinctively to his opponent's moves. Chi Sao training will help in this. He does not think "if my opponent does this I will counter with that". Instead, he just reacts.

Because the range in Wing Chun is typically so close, there is generally no time to react to visual stimuli. The art is essentially tactile, and the practitioner learns the "feel" of correct technique only through extensive partner drills with skilled partners.

The speed at which Bruce Lee fought in his later movies is not an accurate representation of the speed at which Wing Chun or Jeet Kune Do is conducted. Bruce Lee slowed down to make his movements easier to see. His earlier movies such as Chinese Connection http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0068767/ are more realistic in this regard.

Vertical Punch

Punches are thrown with the elbow down and in front of the body. The fist is held vertical and the contact points are the bottom three knuckles. The fist is swiveled on point of impact so that the bottom three knuckles are thrust forward adding power to the punch while it is at maximum extension.

The advantages of the vertical punch are speed, protection, hand strength and force redirection. The vertical punch provides a more stable and natural position than the twisting horizontal fisted punches found in many other styles of martial arts which can lead to wrist/hand injuries. This is why many practitioners of horizontal fisted styles tape their wrists.


  • Speed. Because the elbow is not swung back behind the body, the vertical punch is faster than a conventional roundhouse punch. This does mean that the vertical punch is less effective. Power is traded off for speed. The waist is twisted to add power to the vertical punch, but this is not possible in the chain punch (see below) as it would be too slow.
  • Protection. Keeping the elbow low and forward protects the front of the body whereas swinging the elbow back would open up the front of the body to attack.
  • Hand strength. The vertical fist places the knuckles forward, allowing them to take the impact of the punch and transmit the force down the back of the hand. A horizontal fist, in contrast, puts the finger joints in front of the knuckles so the impact must be taken there, making it easier to break the fingers. This can be tested by punching a wall with a vertical and then a horizontal fist. Note that the vertical fist can be used to strike a hard wall without causing pain at medium levels of force. This is not possible with a horizontal fist.
  • Force redirection. The vertical punch redirects the force from the punch downwards into the puncher's legs and into the ground. In contrast the horizontal punch redirects the force from the punch sideways into the puncher's waist. This gives the vertical punch a more solid foundation.

The last item above can be easily tested. Hold your fist vertically in front of you, your elbow down, one foot behind the other. Ask someone to push against your fist and you will feel his force being redirected into the ground. Repeat, but with your fist horizontal and your elbow at shoulder height and to the side. You will feel his force twisting you sideways, leaving you with nothing to push back against.

The vertical punch is so effective that Bruce Lee kept it unchanged, in Jeet Kune Do.

The vertical punch is the basis for the Wing Chun chain punch - alternate left and right vertical punches thrown in quick succession, resulting in a fast flurry of punches of a few punches per second. The chain punch is simple, effective and difficult to counter.

Wing Chun students are taught that when in doubt as to which technique to use, they should attack with the chain punch. This avoids the "analysis paralysis" that can occur when an overly-trained martial artist gets into an unstructured street fight.

Centerline

Wing Chun emphasizes attack and defense along an imaginary vertical line drawn along the nose, throat, navel and groin. The human body's prime striking targets are considered to be on or near this line.

A Wing Chun practitioner will strive to protect his centerline and attack his opponent's. Footwork is used to move your centerline away from an opponent's attack and to position your hands and feet to attack his centerline.

Wing Chun techniques are "closed", the limbs drawn in to protect the centerline and also to maintain balance. The hands should not move beyond the vertical circle that is described by swinging the arms in front, with the hands crossed at the wrists. To reach outside this area, footwork is used.

One subtle advantage of attacking the centerline is force redirection, or rather the lack of it. Hitting someone on the side (for example the shoulder) will cause the recipient's body to twist, absorbing some of the force. Hitting someone in the center causes more of the shock of the punch to be transmitted to the body.

Linear Movement

Strikes are linear. This is in the belief that the fastest path between two points is a straight line. Some blocking movements however, can be circular.

Note that the vertical punch is linear - only straight line movements are used.

Simultaneous Attack and Defense

Whenever possible, both arms will be used to block and strike in one movement. This allows for fast counter attacks, compared to the conventional block with one hand followed by a counterpunch with the other.

Independent Movement of Limbs

A Wing Chun practitioner should be able to punch and kick at the same time, thereby confusing his opponent. Any combination of punches and kicks can be used, so that his attack will be difficult to predict. His opponent cannot hope that punch A will always be thrown together with kick X as any punch can be used with any kick.

Even the arms are trained to move independently of each other. This is one of the purposes of the Siu Nim Tao.

Risk Aversion

A life-or-death combat situation is no time to take unnecessary risks. Wing Chun is conservative in this regard. Equal emphasis is placed on offensive and defensive measures.

Most hand techniques place one hand close to the chest, to ward off punches that manage to get past the lead hand. The elbows are kept low, to protect the body. The head is tilted forward and down to protect the throat with the chin.

Proper balance is always maintained. Wing Chun practitioners will not risk their balance by over-reaching to attack an opponent. Strikes should be launched from a solid base. All-or-nothing gambles are not worth the risk.

Feints are discouraged as these are seen as opening up your body to attack, with no possibility of hitting your opponent in return.

Balance and Body Structure

Overall body balance is emphasized as this affects speed. A well balanced body can move more quickly. The trunk is always kept upright for this purpose.

A Wing Chun practitioner will not lean sideways in order to throw a high kick to an opponent's head. Changing your body's center of gravity so radically brings grave speed penalties, aside from opening your groin to attack and your foot to grabbing.

Bobbing and weaving is not used to dodge punches. Footwork is considered faster for dodging, and does not endanger stability or body structure.

Wing Chun practitioners believe that the person with the better body structure will win.

Proper body structure is used to redirect horizontal force from a punch, vertically into the ground. This allows more powerful punches to be thrown.

Proper positioning of arms will close holes in your defense, allowing no avenue for your opponent to strike.

For example, the forearm in the bong sau should be kept high so as to deflect punches upwards. The bong sau forearm is also kept forward because having it too far back weakens the leverage of the triceps and allows the forearm to be pushed back.

Wing Chun students are taught how to test each technique against specific attacks so that they can assume the correct positions from actual feedback and not from blindly following their instructor. Proper stances are checked by having someone push against you to check your stability.

The importance of balance in Wing Chun can be seen in this alternate description of the Wing Chun forms:

  • Chum Kiu, the second form, consists of techniques to destroy your opponent's structure and balance, leaving him open to attack.
  • Biu Tze, the third form, consists of techniques to counter attack when you are in a disadvantageous situation, when your structure and balance have been compromised.

Relaxation

Wing Chun techniques are performed in a relaxed manner, during both training and in actual combat.

  • Muscles act in pairs in opposition to each other (e.g. biceps and triceps). If the arm is tensed, maximum punching speed cannot be achieved as the biceps will be opposing the extension of the arm. In essence, a tensed arm must first relax then begin the punching motion. When relaxed at the onset the punch may begin at any time. One motion is always faster than two.
  • Unnecessary tension wastes energy, causing fatigue. This can be critical in an extended engagement.
  • Tension stiffens the arms, making them less sensitive in Chi Sao and reduces your ability to sense and react to your opponent's intentions.
  • A stiff limb provides an easy handle for an opponent to push or pull you with, where a relaxed limb allows you to release their energy.

The mind should also be relaxed when fighting. The gritted teeth, bulging neck muscles attitude of The Incredible Hulk is not the correct Wing Chun fighting attitude.

This relaxed approach is extended into the training itself. It would be difficult to teach students to relax if the training atmosphere itself was tense. Wing Chun classes are commonly relaxed and light hearted affairs. Sifus are friendly and open, far from the Hollywood (and Hong Kong) caricature of sadistic inscrutable taskmasters.

Trapping Skills and Sensitivity

Wing Chun is famous for its trapping hands. Control over an opponent is maintained by making contact, either through a block or a strike, and sensing the opponents intentions. Whatever energy the opponent may supply at the moment of contact is sensed and controlled. At the moment a punch is deflected, rather than letting go, contact is maintained, so when the opponent attempts to withdraw or redirect the hand, this is sensed and the motion is used to either facilitate a trap or a strike. If the opponent again reacts, this reaction is sensed and the energy is again used to facilitate another trap or strike. A good Wing Chun practitioner can trap a strong opponent and continue to use the opponents energetic attempts to defend or counter to add strength and power to his own close range attacks.

Weapons

Whereas primarily an empty hand style, weapon training has been added to the style. Such a training is considered dangerous/secret and is thus only taught at master level.

The two weapons of Wing Chun are

  • "Dragon Pole" - an eight-foot wooden pole
  • "Butterfly Swords" - small double Chinese broadswords (Dao)

Training

Wing Chun students are taught the reasoning behind each technique that they learn. This avoids them going through the motions without knowing how to apply them. This theoretical grounding also allows them to analyze other styles for strengths and weaknesses.

Wing Chun also makes use of a number of wing chun kuen kuit to teach the art. These are short, often sing-song, sayings or rhymes that indicate principles, or strategies, or even particular responses. In many cases, their meaning rested on slang that was not necessarily widely known. In others, although the meaning might be "clear", the actual meaning for the art would require that you physically learn something. These principals are useful in helping the student find the correct response to an unrecognized attack on their own without being taught a specific sequence by their instructor. This makes Wing Chun very adaptable in real combat situations.

Personalities

Yip Man was well respected by other martial arts instructors in Hong Kong. He was the first person to teach Wing Chun to a wider public. After his death, many of his students formed separate schools. In some cases, instructors developed more systematic methodologies of teaching Wing Chun -- however, there is probably no substitute for direct hands-on transmission of the feel of the art. This has led to varying interpretations of the art.

Yip Man was well-known for having a very quick wit and an acid tongue. His teaching style, along with the very direct nature of the art and its despising of superfluous talk, infuses the art with a certain edginess. This is probably why Wing Chun is well-known for being split into many factions, each of which feel that they are the holders of the true transmission of the art.


  • Yip Man - a Wing Chun grandmaster with worldwide influence.
  • Tam Lai

Tam Lai (Tan Li) was born in the mid 1920s and began studying Wing Chun Kuen under the renowned Yip Man in Tsim Sha Tsui around 1960. In addition to Wing Chun Kuen, Tam Lai is also a skilled practitioner of Dit Da (Chinese osteopathy). Retired from active teaching, he carries on his medical practice and passes along his art privately in Hong Kong. Among Tam Lai's students is Ma Ping (Paul Mah Ping)who brought his art to Montreal, Canada in the 1970s.

    • Paul Mah Ping - one of Tam Lai students (in Hong Kong, later moved to Montreal Canada to teach a select few)
      • Denis Shink - A top student of Paul Mah Ping, very pure lineage from Yip Man.
        • Michel Orchard - Studied under Mah Ping, and Denis Shink (Montreal) (Known for his contributions and involvement with Zen Tao Interactive's Extreme Wing Chun VR Trainer) Pure Lineage from Yip Man.
    • Kan Wah-Chit (Victor Kan) [2] (http://www.vingtsunvk.com)(Yip Man's student, known as the 'Chi-Sau King', brought Ving Tsun to UK)
    • Simon Lau [3] (http://www.simonlaucentre.co.uk)
    • Leung Ting (Grandmaster of "Wing Tsun" or WingTsun™ (correct spelling) branch)
    • Leung Sheung
    • Wang Kiu (one of the first Yip Man students)
    • Lok Yiu (one of the first Yip Man students)
    • Chu Shong-tin Longest serving student of Yip Man still alive today. 71 years old this year and still going strong.
      • Jim Fung (Grandmaster and student of Tsui Tseung Tin since 1960)
    • Moy Yat [4] (http://www.Moyyat.com)
    • Wong Shun-leung (黃淳樑 Grandmaster of "Ving Tsun" branch, taught Bruce Lee)
    • Ip Chun (Yip Man's eldest son)
    • Ip Ching (Yip Man's younger son)
    • Lo Man Kam (Yip Man's nephew)
    • William Cheung (Founder and creator of "Traditional Wing Chun" branch. One of Yip Man's students.)
    • Ho Kam Ming Long time student of Yip Man
  • Nguyen Te Cong, Yuen Chai-Wan Older brother of Kay Shan, founder of Vietnam Wingchun (Forever Spring)
  • Cho On - A grandmaster and contemporary of Yip Man. Said to be the one who introduced Yip Man to teach in the Restaurant Association in Hong Kong, he relocated to Pulau Pinang, a northern island of Peninsular Malaysia.
    • Ku Choi Wah - Grandmaster and a student of Lau Soon Yin (disciple of Cho On) and later Cho On. Actively promoted Wing Chun as taught by Cho On in Singapore although in a very private manner.
      • Randy Tay - Disciple of Ku Choi Wah and one of the foremost authorities on Cho Ga Wing Chun. Founded Kuen-Do [5] (http://www.kuen-do.com) based on his learnings.

Yip Man's lineage is not the only one that exists and there are several different histories which confirm and contradict Yip Man's histories. Yip Man had many peers who passed on the art of Wing Chun resulting in, to name a few, the Yuan Kay-shan Gu Lao and Pan Nam branches. It is said that there are 7 main Wing Chun families in mainland China. Some other branches are found in Malaysia (e.g. Cho Ga Wing Chun), Vietnam, and Taiwan.

Bruce Lee trained in Wing Chun and later incorporated some of its moves and philosophy into the Jeet Kune Do style he later personally developed. Jeet Kune Do differs greatly from Wing Chun as taught by Yip Man and incorporates many different styles - philosophy centers around knowledge of self, and follows vector sciences very closely.

Wing Chun across the World

Greece (http://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wing_chun)

External references

zh:咏春拳 sv:Wing Chun

  • [6] (http://www.sillumwingchun.com) Tucson,Arizona based U.S.A. Wing Chun School
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