Politics of Tajikistan

From Academic Kids

Template:Politics of Tajikistan The Republic of Tajikistan gained its independence during the breakup of the Soviet Union on September 9, 1991 and promptly fell into a civil war from 1992-97 between old-guard regionally based ruling elites and disenfranchised regions, democratic liberal reformists, and Islamists loosely organized in a United Tajik Opposition (UTO). Other combatants and armed bands that flourished in this civil chaos simply reflected the breakdown of central authority rather than loyalty to a political faction. The height of hostilities occurred between 1992-93. By 1997, the predominantly Kulyabi-led Tajik Government and the UTO successfully negotiated a powersharing peace accord and implemented it by 2000.

Tajikistan is slowly rebuilding itself with an integrated government and continues to permit a Russian military presence to guard their border with Afghanistan and the basing of the Russian 201st Motorized Rifle Division that never left Tajikistan when it became independent. Most of these Russian-led forces, however, are local Tajik noncommissioned officers and soldiers.

Both Tajikistan's presidential and parliamentary elections, in 1999 and 2000, respectively, were widely considered to be flawed and unfair but peaceful. The inclusion of an overtly declared Islamic party committed to secular government (Islamic Rebirth Party) and several other parties in the Parliamentary elections represented an improvement in the Tajik people's right to choose their government. Tajikistan is the only Central Asian country in which a religiously affiliated political party is represented in Parliament. President Rahmonov, while no longer specifically obliged--as he was under the peace accords--to allocate one-third of government positions to the UTO, has kept some former UTO officials in senior cabinet-level positions. While the government and the now incorporated former opposition continue to distrust each other, they have often found a way to work with each other and are committed to peacefully resolving their differences.

Tajikistan's fragmented neighbor to the south, Afghanistan, continues to be a base of international terrorism, a scene of civil conflict between the Taliban and their opponents, and the world's largest producer of opium. This combination of negative factors produces crossborder effects that regularly threatens to destabilize Tajikistan's fragile and hard-won peace. In the summers of 1999 and 2000, the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, an officially declared terrorist organization by the U.S. Government, used Tajikistan as a staging ground for an insurgency campaign against the Government of Uzbekistan. At the same time, Taliban advances in northern Afghanistan threatened to inundate Tajikistan with thousands of refugees. All the while, a constant flow of illegal narcotics continue to transit Tajikistan from Afghanistan on its way to Russian and European markets, leaving widespread violent crime, corruption, increased HIV incidence, and economic distortions in its wake. During 2002, stability in the country continued to increase, and the year was largely free of the assassinations and outbreaks of violence perpetrated by unreformed opposition members that plagued the country in previous years.

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
local short form: none
former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: TI

Government type: republic

Capital: Dushanbe

Administrative divisions:

Tajikistan is divided into 2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat) and 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor): Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon* (Khorugh - formerly Khorog), Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa - formerly Kurgan-Tyube), Viloyati Sughd (Khujand - formerly Leninabad)

note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses

Independence: September 9, 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: National Day, 9 September (1991)

Constitution: November 6, 1994

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Emomali Rahmonov (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Ogil Oqilov (since 20 January 1999), see List of Presidents of Tajikistan
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 6 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2006); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Emomali RAHMONOV elected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMONOV 97%, Davlat USMONOV 2%
Tajikistan held a constitutional referendum on 22 June 2003 that, among other things, set a term limit of two seven-year terms for the president

Legislative branch: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milliy (33 seats; members are indirectly elected, 25 selected by local deputies, 8 appointed by the president; all serve five-year terms)
elections: last held February 27, and March 12, 2000 for the Assembly of Representatives (next to be held NA 2005) and March 23, 2000 for the National Assembly (next to be held NA 2005)
election results: Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 65%, Communist Party 20%, Islamic Rebirth Party 7.5%, other 7.5%; seats by party - NA; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president

Political parties in Tajikistan and leaders:

  • Democratic Party or TDP [Mahmadruzi ISKANDDAROV, chairman]
  • Islamic Rebirth Party [Said Abdullo NURI, chairman]
  • People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan (PDPT) [Emomali RAHMONOV]
  • Social Democratic Party or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]
  • Socialist Party or SPT [Sherali KENJAYEV]
  • Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]

(The following parties were listed as active in 2000, but there is no new information about them.)

  • Lali Badakhshan Movement [Atobek AMIRBEKOV]
  • National Unity Party - evolved from the People's Party and Party of People's Unity
  • Party of Justice and Development [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]
  • Rastokhez (Rebirth) Movement [Tohiri ABDUJABBOR]
  • Tajikistan Party of Economic and Political Renewal or TPEPR [leader NA]
  • United Tajik Opposition or UTO [Said Abdullo NURI] - an umbrella group including; Adolatho "Justice" Party [Abdurahmon KARIMOV, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: there are two unregistered political parties with 1,000 or more members:

  • Progressive Party [Suton QUVVATOV]
  • Unity Party [Hikmatuko SAIDOV]

International organization participation:

AsDB, CCC, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, IOM, ITU, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)


Flag description: three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe

See also : Tajikistan
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