Cerussite

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Missing image
CerussiteQuartzUSGS.jpg
Sample of cerussite-bearing quartzite

Cerussite (also known as Horn silver, Lead carbonate, White lead ore) is a mineral consisting of lead carbonate (PbCO3), and an important ore of lead. The name (sometimes erroneously spelt cerusite) is from the Latin cerussa, white lead. Cerussa nativa was mentioned by K Gesner in 1565, and in 1832 FS Beudant applied the name cruse to the mineral, whilst the present form, cerussite, is due to W. Haidinger (1845). Popular names in early use were lead-spar and white-lead-ore.

Cerussite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and is isomorphous with aragonite. Like aragonite it is very frequently twinned, the compound crystals being pseudo-hexagonal in. form. Three crystals are usually twinned together on two faces of the prism m { 1 1o~, producing six-rayed stellate groups (figs. I and 2) with the individual crystals intercrossing at angles of nearly 60. Crystals are of frequent occurrence, and they usually have very bright and smooth faces. The mineral also occurs in compact granular masses, and sometimes in fibrous forms. It is usually colorless or white, sometimes grey or greenish in tint; it varies from transparent to translucent, and has an adamantine lustre. It is very brittle, and has a conchoidal fracture. Hardness 3-33/4 sp. gr. 6~5. A variety containing 7 % of zinc carbonate, replacing lead carbonate, is known as iglesiasite, from Iglesias in Sardinia, where it is found.

The mineral may be readily recognized by its characteristic twinning, in conjunction with the adamantine lustre and high specific gravity. It dissolves with effervescence in dilute nitric acid. Before the blowpipe it fuses very readily, and gives reactions for lead.

Finely crystallized specimens have been obtained from the Friedrichssegen mine near Ems in Nassau, Johanngeorgenstadt in Saxony, Mies in Bohemia, Phenixville in Pennsylvania, Broken Hill, New South Wales; and several other localities. Delicate acicular crystals of considerable length were found long ago in the Pentire Glaze mine near St Minver in Cornwall. It is often found in considerable quantities, and contains as much as 77.5% of lead.

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